Produktdetails palli-natura Naturbilder

Nutzen & Wirkung

Die Wirkungen der Natur / Naturbilder

Gesundheitsdefinition laut WHO 1948: Gesundheit ist physisches, psychisches und soziales Wohlbefinden.

Soziale Ebene

  • Förderung sozialer Kontakte, Begegnung
  • Bildung von Gemeinschaft
  • Kollektive Erlebnisse
  • Geborgenheit / Eingebundensein
  • Räumliche Bildung
  • Förderung von sozialem Engagement
  • Kommunikation
  • Gefühl von Sicherheit

Emotionale/psychische Ebene

  • Stressabbau
  • Positive Ablenkung
  • Verstärkung positiver Emotionen: Freude, Glück, Zufriedenheit, Freiheit
  • Minderung negativer Emotionen: Angst, Ärger, Gehemmtheit
  • Steigerung des Selbstwertgefühls: Selbstbewusstsein, Kompetenz, Selbstgenügsamkeit, Autonomie
  • Höhere Zufriedenheit

Physische Ebene

  • Reduktion der Stresshormone
  • Senkung des Blutdrucks
  • Pulsregulierung
  • Muskelentspannung
  • Verminderung der Hautleitfähigkeit
  • Steigerung der Konzentrationsfähigkeit
  • Verminderte Einnahme von Schmerzmedikamenten
Hintergrundinformationen & Literatur

Literatursammlung zur positiven Wirkung der Natur

Seit Anfang der 1990ger befassen sich internationale Studien im Gesundheitswesen mit dem evidenz basierten Design, evidence based design (EBD). Untersucht werden die Faktoren einer gebauten Umgebung und deren Auswirkungen auf den Genesungsprozess und das Wohlbefinden von Patienten, Besuchern und Personal.

Neben der Qualität der Sicherheit sind die Genesungsqualitäten von Bedeutung: 

  • Orientierung / Wegeführung
  • Kommunikation
  • Privatsphäre / Ruhe
  • Soziale Unterstützung
  • Verbindung zur Natur

Begonnen hat die Entwicklung des evidenz basierten Designs durch eine Studie von Roger S. Ulrich 1984. Er fand heraus, dass Patienten mit einem Ausblick auf die Natur:

  • weniger Komplikationen hatten,
  • weniger Schmerzmittel nahmen
  • und schneller entlassen wurden als Patienten ohne Ausblick auf die Natur.

Einen Auszug aus den zahlreichen Studien zur positiven und vielfältigen Wirkung der Natur sind hier gegliedert in:

  • Blick auf die Natur/Naturfotografien
  • Naturbilder, Kunst
  • Heilende Gärten in Gesundheitseinrichtungen
  • Die allgemein heilende Wirkung von Gärten
  • Natur Senioren (Demenz)
  • Allgemeine Studien zur positiven Wirkung der Natur auf uns Menschen

Blick auf die Natur/Naturfotografien

Zahlreiche Studien haben inzwischen gezeigt, dass der Blick auf die Natur, natürlich oder in Form von Naturfotografien, erheblich zur Erholung von Stress beiträgt.

(Naturfotografien werden gegenüber abstrakten Bildern bevorzugt.)

Brämer, Rainer (2008): Grün tut uns gut. Daten und Fakten zur Renaturierung des Hightech-Menschen. www.natursoziologie.de 5/2008

Nakamura, R. and E. Fujii (1990). Studies of the characteristics of the electroencephalogram when observing potted plants: Pelargonium hortorum “Sprinter Red” and Begonia evansiana. Technical Bulletin of the Faculty of Horticulture of Chiba University, 43: 177-183. (In Japanese with English summary)

Nakamura, R. and E. Fujii (1992). A comparative study of the characteristics of the electroencephalogram when observing a hedge and a concrete block fence. Journal of the Japanese Institute of Landscape Architects, 55: 139-144. (In Japanese with English summary.)

Ulrich, R. S. (1981). Natural versus urban scenes: Some psychophysiological effects. Environment and Behavior, 13: 523-556.

Ulrich, R. S. (1984). View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science, 224: 42-421.

Ulrich, R. S. (1991). Effects of health facility interior design on wellness: Theory and recent scientific research. Journal of Health Care Design, 3: 97-109. [Reprinted in: Marberry, S.O. (Ed.) 1995. Innovations in Healthcare Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, pp. 88-104.]

Ulrich, R. S., Lundén, O., and J. L. Eltinge (1993). “Effects of exposure to nature and abstract pictures on patients recovering from heart surgery.” Paper presented at the Thirty-Third Meeting of the Society for Psychophysiological Research, Rottach- Egern, Germany. Abstract in Psychophysiology, 30 (Supplement 1, 1993): 7.

Ulrich, R. S., Simons, R. F., Losito, B. D., Fiorito, E., Miles, M. A., & Zelson, M. (1991). Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11: 201-230.

Naturbilder, Kunst

Anderson, Eddie : Visual resource Assessment: Local perceptions of familiar natural environments. Dissertation University of Michigan (1978) (nach Abstract in Kaplan/Kaplan 1989)

Diette, G. B., Lechtzin, N., Haponik, E., Devrotes, A., & Rubin, H. R. (2003). Distraction therapy with nature sights and sounds reduces pain during flexible bronchoscopy: A complementary approach to routine analgesia. Chest, 123(3), 941-948.

Hathor, Kathy and Upali Nanda. A Guide to Evidence-based Art. Published by the Center for Health Design.

Malkin, Jain (2008). A Visual Reference for Evidence-Based Design. The Center for Health Design.

Nanda, Upali, Cherly M. Canaud, Linda Brown, Robyn Hart, and Kathy Hathorn (2009). “Pediatric Art Preferences: Countering the ‘One-Size-Fits-All’ Approach.” Health Environments Research & Design Journal (HERD), Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 46-61.

Spencer, Jon Michael (1997). Live Arts Experiences: Their Impact on Health and Wellness, 2nd Edition. Hospital Audiences, Inc.

Staricoff, R., Duncan, J. and Wright, M. ‘A study of the effects of visual and performing arts in healthcare’ Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 2004; www.chelwest.nhs.uk/abut us/hopital arts

Ulrich, R. S., Lunden, O., & Eltinge, J. L. (1993). Effects of exposure to nature and abstract pictures on patients recovering from heart surgery. Paper presented at the thirty-third meeting of the Society for Psychophysiological Research, Rottach- Egern, Germany. Abstract in Psychophysiology, 30(Suppl. 1), 7.

Ulrich, Roger S. and Laura Gilpin (2003). “Healing arts: Nutrition for the Soul.” In Putting Patients First: Designing and Practicing Patient-Centered Care. Eds. Frampton, Susan B., Laura Gilpin, and Patrick A. Charmel. San Francisco:John Wiley & Sons.

Ulrich, R. S., Simons, R. F., Losito, B. D., Fiorito, E., Miles, M. A., & Zelson, M. (1991). Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11(2): 201-230.

Ulrich, R. S., Simons, R. F., & Miles, M. A. (2003). Effects of environmental simulations and television on blood donor stress. Journal of Architectural & Planning Research, 20(1), 38-47.

Ulrich, R. S. (1984). View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science, 224(4647), 420-421.

Heilende Gärten in Gesundheitseinrichtungen

Auch Gärten in Gesundheitseinrichtungen sind unterstützend um sich von Stress zu erholen. Dies gilt für Patienten, Besucher und das Personal.

Diette G. B., Lechtzin N., Haponik E., Devrotes A. & Rubin H. R. (2003). Distraction therapy with nature sights and sounds reduces pain during flexible Health Environments Research & Design, 1(3), 2008 bronchoscopy: A complementary approach to routine analgesia. Chest, 123 (3), 941–948.

Gierlach-Spriggs, N. Kaufman, R. E., and S. B. Warner, Jr. (1998). Restorative Garden: The Healing Landscape. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Hartig, T., Korpela, K., Evans, G.W.(1997): A Measure of Restorative Quality in Environments. Scandinavian Housing & Planning Resarch 14, S. 175-194

Heerwagen, J. (1990). The psychological aspects of windows and window design. In K. H. Anthony, J. Choi, and B. Orland (Eds.), Proceedings of 21st annual conference of the Environmental Design Research Association. Oklahoma City: EDRA, 269-280.

Hefferman, M. L., Morstatt, M., Saltzman, K., and L. Strunc (1995). A Room with a View Art Survey: The Bird Garden at Duke University Hospital. Unpublished research report, Cultural Services Program and Management Fellows Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Marcus C. C. ,& Barnes M. (1995). Gardens in healthcare facilities: Uses, therapeutic benefits, and design recommendations. Concord, CA:The Center for Health Design.

Marcus C. C., & Barnes, M. (Eds.) (1999). Healing gardens: Therapeutic benefits and design recommendations. New York:Wiley.

Rodiek S. (2005). Resident perceptions of physical environment features that influence outdoor usage at assisted living facilities. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 19 (3/4), 95–107.

Sherman S. A., Varni J. W., Ulrich R. S. ,& Malcarne V. L. (2005). Postoccupancy evaluation of healing gardens in a pediatric cancer center. Landscape and Urban Planning, 73, 167–183.

Ulrich, R. S. (1999). Effects of gardens on health outcomes: Theory and research. In C. Cooper-Marcus & M. Barnes (Eds.), Healing Gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations. New York: John Wiley, pp. 27-86.

Ulrich, R. S. and R. Parsons (1992). Influences of passive experiences with plants on individual well-being and health. In D. Relf (Ed.), The role of horticulture in human well-being and social development. Portland, OR: Timber Press, pp. 93-105.

Ulrich, R. S. (2002). Health Benefits of Gardens in Hospitals, Paper for conference, Plants for People, International Exhibition Floriade 2002

Whitehouse, S., Varni, J. W., Seid, M., Cooper-Marcus, C., Ensberg, M. J., Jacobs, J. J. and R. S. Mehlenbeck (2001). Evaluating a children’s hospital garden environment: Utilization and consumer satisfaction. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21: 301- 314.

Die allgemein heilende Wirkung von Gärten

Armstrong, D. 2000: A survey of community gardens in upstate New York: Implications for health promotion and community development. In: Health & Places 6. 319-327.

Brown, K.H.; Jameton, A.L. 2000: Public Health implications of urban agriculture. In: Journal of Public Health Policy 21. 20-39.

Byrne, J.A. 2007: The role of race in configuration park use. A political, ecology persepective. Dissertation an der University of California.

Byrne, J.A.; Kendrick, M.; Sroaf, D. 2007: The park made of oil: Towards a historical political ecology of Kenneth Hahn State Recreation Area. In: Local Environment 12 (2). 153-181.

Floyd, M.F. 2001: Managing parks in a multikultural society. Searching for common ground. In: Managing Recreation Use 18. 41-51.

Gobster, P.H. 2002: Managing urban parks for racially and ethically diverse clientele. In: Leisure Science 24. 143-159.

Grünsteidl, I. 2000: Community Gardens. Grüne Oasen in den Ghettos von New York. In: Holl, A.; Meyer-Renschhausen E. (Hrsg.): Die Wiederkehr der Gärten. Insbruck. 125- 139.

Ho, C.-H.; Sasidharan, V.; Elmendorf, W.; Graefe, A.; Godbey, G. 2002: Gender and

ethnicity differences in local park visitation and recreation preferences. In: Journal of Leisure Research 37 (3). 281-306.

Hutchinson,R. 1987: Ethnicity and urban recreation: Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in Chicago’s public park. In: Journal of Leisure Research 19 (3). 205-222.

Meyer-Renschhausen, E. 2002: Grüner Daumen. Community Gardens, eine neue soziale Bewegung in NYC. In: Frankfurter Rundschau vom 11.10.2002. 19.

Meyer-Renschhausen, E. 2005: Kürbisse von der Lower East Side – Zur sozialökonomischen Relevanz der New Yorker Community Gardens. In: Skripte zu Migration und Nachhaltigkeit 2. Stiftung Interkultur. München.

Meyer-Renschhausen, E., Müller, R.; Becker, P.: 2000 (Hrsg.): Die Gärten der Frauen. Herbolzheim.

Mitchell, D.; Staeheli, L.A. 2005: Turning social relations into space: Property, law and the plaza of Santa Fe, New Mexico. In: Landscape Research 30. 3611-378.

Müller, Ch. 2002: Wurzeln schlagen in der Fremde. Internationale Gärten und ihre Bedeutung für Integrationsprozesse. München.

Müller, Ch. 2004: Interkulturelle Gärten – ein neuer Ansatz in der sozialen Arbeit. In: Callo, C; Hein, A.; Plahl, C. (Hrsg.): Mensch und Garten. Ein Dialog zwischen sozialer Arbeit und Gartenbau. Norderstedt. 100-116.

Müller, Ch. 2005: Sich ‚Heimat’ erarbeiten? Zur Bedeutung des Heimatbegriffs in Interkulturellen Gärten. In: Institut für Landschaftspfleg, Universität Hannover (Hrsg.): Der Heimatbegriff in der Nachhaltigen Entwicklung. 187-195.

Müller, Ch. 2006: Interkulturelle Gärten – eine neue soziale Bewegung. In: AKP, Fachzeitschrift für Alternative Kommunalpolitik 3/2006. 61-63.

Müller, Ch. 2007: Interkulturelle Gärten: Urbane Orte der Subsistenzproduktion und der Vielfalt. In: Deutsche Zeitschrift für Kommunalwissenschaften. – Die „grüne“ Stadt – urbane Qualitäten durch Freiraumentwicklung 1 /2007. 55-67.

Nuru, M.; Konschink, K. 2000: Taking the land in building community. San Francisco league of urban gardeners. In: Race, Poverty and Environment 7. 50-51.

Payne L.L., Mowen, A.j.; Orsega-Smith, E. 2002: An Examination of Park Preferences and Behaviors Among Urban Residents. The Role of Residential Location, Race and Age. In: Leisure Sciences 24. 181-198.

Rishbeth, C. 2001: Ethnic minority groupsand the design of public open space: an inclusive landscape? In: Landscape Resarch 26. 351-366.

Rishbeth, C.; Finney, N. 2006: Novelty and nostalgia in urban greenspace: Refugee perspectives. In: Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie 97 (3). 281-295.

Sasidharan, V. 2001: The urban recreation experience. An examination of multicultural differences in park and forest visitation characteristics. Unveröffentlichte Dissertation der Pennsylvania State University. Pennsylvania.

Sasidharan, V.; Willits, F.; Godbey, G. 2005: Cultural differences in urban recreation patterns: an examination of park usage and activity participation across six population subgroups. In: Managing Leisure 10. 19-38.

Seeland, K.; Ballesteros, N. 2004: Kulturvergleichende Untersuchungen zum sozialintegrativen Potential gestalteter urbaner Naturräume in den Agglomerationen Genf, Lugano und Zürich. Forstwirtschaftliche Beiträge 31.

Shinew, K.J.; Floyd, M.F.; Parry, D. 2004: Understanding the relationship between race and leisure activities and constraints: Exploring an alternative framework. In: Leisure Science 26. 181-199.

Stanfield, R. Manning, R.; Budruk, M.; Floyd, M.F. 2005: Racial discrimination in parks and outdoor recreation: an empirical study. Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Bolton Landing, New York.

Swanson, D.K. 2005: Parks for all people. In: The trust for Public Land Newsletter, Fall/Winter 2005. 1-3.

Tittle, D. 2002: A Walk in the Park: greater Cleveland’s new and Reclaimed Green Spaces.

Athens, Ohio.

Werner, K. 2008: Interkulturelle Gärten als Sozialräume der Mikro-Intergration. In: Skripte zu Migration und Nachhaltigkeit 6. Stiftung Interkultur. München.

Natur Senioren (Demenz)

Abbott, R.D.; White, L.R.; Ross, G.W.; Masaki, K.H.; Curb, J.D.; Petrovich, H. 2004: Walking and dementia in physical capable elderly men. In: Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association 292 (12). 1447-1453.

Altmann, I. Powell, L.M.; Wohlmill, J.F. 1984: Elderly people and the Environment. New York, London.

Andreoli, P.J.H. 2003: Monitoring evaluatie en kennisverzameling: pilotproject: senioren actief in groenkamers. Woonzorg Nederland. Amsterdam.

Beck, T.; Schneiter-Ullmann, R. 2004: Therapeutischer Garten. Ein interdisziplinäres Projekt der angewandten Forschung für das Alterszentrum Gibeleich. In: zoll+5. 58-62.

Berke, E.M.; Koepsell, T.D., Moudon, A.V.; Hoskins, R.E.; Larson, E.B. 2007: Association of the Built Environment with Physical Activity and Obesity in Older Persons. In: American Journal of Public Health 97 (3). 486-492.

Booth, M.L.; Owen, N.; Baumann, A.; Clavisi, O.; Leslie, E. 2000: Social-cognitive and perceived environment influences associated with physical activity in older Australiens. In: Preventive Medicine 31 (1). 15-22.

Brascamp, W.; Kidd, J.L. 2004: Contribution of plants to the well-being of retirement home residents. In: Acta Horticulturae 639. 145-150.

Caspersen, C.J.; Bloemberg, B.P.; Saris, W.H. et al. 1991: The prevalence of selected physical activities and their relation with coronary heart disease risk factors in elderly men: the Zutphen Study. In: American Journal of Epidemiology 113 (11). 1078-1092.

Cohen-Mansfield, J; Werner, P. 1998: Visits to an outdoor garden: impact on behavior and mood of nursing home residents who pace. In: Vellas, B.J.; Fitten, L.J. (Hrsg.). Research and practice in Alzheimer’s desease. New York. 419-436.

Cunningham, G.; Michael, I. 2004: Concepts guiding the study of the impact of the built environment on physical activity for older adults. In: American Journal of Health Promotion 18 (6). 435-443.

Drabelle, D. 1990: Beyond Shuffleboard: Designing Outdoor Spaces for the Elderly. In: The Art of Landscape Architecture: Projects funded by grants from the Design Arts Program National Endowment for the Arts.Washington, D.C. 52-57.

Fabriqoule, C.; Letenneur, L.; Dartigues, J.F. et al. 1995: Social and leisure activities and risk of dementia: a prospective longitudinal study. In: Journal of American Geriatrics Society 43 (5). 485-490.

Haas, K.; Simon, S.; Stevenson, N. 1998: Older persons and horticulture therapy practice. In: Simson, S.; Strauss, M. (Hrsg.): Horticulture as therapy. Principles and practice. New York. 231-255.

Hoffmann R. 2005: Mehr Lebensqualität. Ergebnisse eines Forschungsprojektes im Alterszentrum. In: g’plus 8. 26-27.

Körner Prof. Dr. Stefan; Nagel, A.; Bellin-Harder, F., September 2008: Grün und Gesundheit – Literaturstudie; Universität Kasssel; Fachgebiet Landschaftsbau/Vegetationstechnik

Hung, K.; Crompton, J.L. 2006: Benefits and constraints associated with the use of an urban park reported by a sample of elderly in Hong Kong. In: Leisure Science 25. 291-311.

Joseph, A.; Zimring, C. 2007: Where active older adults walk: Understanding the factors to path choice for walking among active retirement community residents. In: Environment and Behavior 39 (1).75-105.

Küller, R.; Küller, M. 1994: Stadens grönska, alders utevistelse och hälsa. Byggforskningsrådet R24. Stockholm.

Kweon, B.S.; Sullivan, W.C.; Wiley, A.R. 1998: Green common spaces and the social

integration of inner-city older adults. In: Environment and Behavior 30 (6). 832-858.

Li, F.; Fisher, K.J.; Brownson, R.C.; Bosworth, M. 2005: Multilevel modelling of built environment characteristics related to neighbourhood walking activity in older adults. In: Journal of Epidemiological Community Health 59 (7). 558-564.

Martin, G.P.; Nancarrow, S.A.; Parker, H.; Phelps, K.; Regen, E.L. 2005: Place, policy and practitioners: On rehabilitation, independence and the therapeutic landscape in the changing geography of care provision to older people in the UK. In: Social Science & Medicine 61 (9). 1892-1904.

Mc Caffrey, R. 2007: The Effect of Healing Gardens and Art Therapy on Older Adults with Mild to Moderate Depression. In: Holistic Nursing Practice 21 (2). 79-84.

Milligan, C.; Gatrell, C.; Bingley, A. 2004: ‘Cultivating health’: Therapeutic landscapes and older people in northern England. In: Social Science & Medicine 58 (9). 1783-1793.

Mooney, P.; Nicell, P.L. 1992: The importance of exterior environment for Alzheimer’s residents: effective care and risk management. In: Health Care Management Forum 5 (2). 23-29.

Mooney, P.F.; Milstein, S.L. 1994: Assessing the benefits of a therapeutic horticulture program for seniors in intermediate care. In: Francis, M.; Lindsey, P.; Rice, J.C. (Hrsg.): The healing dimensions of people-plant relations. In: Center for Design Research, UC Davis. 173-194.

Mowen, A.J.; Orsega-Smith, E.; Payne, L.; Godbey, G. 2004: The interaction of stress and park use on psycho-physiological health in older adults. In: Journal of Leisure Research 32 (2). 232-257.

Mowen, A.J.; Orsega-Smith, E.; Payne, L.; Ainsworth, B.; Godbey, G. 2007: The role of park proximity and social support in shaping park visitation, physical activity, and perceived health among older adults. In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health 4 (2). 167-179.

Niepel, A.; Emmrich, S. 2005: Garten und Therapie – Wege zur Barrierefreiheit. 168 S. Ulmer Vlg. Stuttgart

Ottosson, J.; Grahn, P. 1998: Utemiljöns betydelse för alder med stort vårdbehov. Licentiate’s dissertation. In: Stad & Land 155. Alnarp.

Payne, L.; Orsega-Smith, E.; Godbey, G.; Roy, M. 1998: Local parcs and recreation and the health of older adults: The results of an exploratory study. In: Parks and Recreation 33 (10). 64-70.

Rappe, E. 2005: The Influence of a Green Environment and Horticultural Activities on the Subjective Well-Being of the Elderly Living in Long-Term Care. University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Biology Publication 24. Helsinki.

Rappe. E.; Lindén, L. 2004: Plants in health care environments: Opinions and exercises of the nursing personal in homes for people with dementia. In: Acta Horticulturae 639. 75-80.

Raymore, L.; Scott, D. 1998: The characteristics and activities of older adult visitors to a metropolitan park district. In: Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 16. 1-21.

Sugiyama, T.; Ward-Thompson, C. 2005: Environmental support for outdoor activities and older people’s quality of life. In: Journal of Housing for the Elderly 19 (3/4). 167-185.

Sugiyama, T.; Ward-Thompson, C. 2007: Associations between characteristics of neighbourhood open space and older people’s walking. In: Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 7 (1). 41-51.

Takano, T.; Nakamura, K.; Watanabe, M. 2002: Urban residential environments and senior citizens’ longevity in megacity areas: the importance of walkable green spaces. In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 56 (12). 913-918.

Tinsley, H.E.; Tinsley, D.J.; Croskeys, C.E. 2002: Park usage, social milieu and psychological benefits of park use reported by older park users from four ethnic groups. In: Leisure Sciences 24. 199-218.

Wilcox, S.; Bopp, M.; Oberecht, L.; Kammermann, S.K.; Mc Elmurray, C.T. 2003: Psychosocial and perceived environmental correlates of physical activity in rural and older African American and White women. In: Journal of Gerontology 58B (6). 329- 337.

Allgemeine Studien zur positiven Wirkung der Natur auf uns Menschen

Abel, Th.; Abraham, A.; BolligerSalzmann, H.; Sommerhalder, K. 2007:  Landschaft und Gesundheit. Das Potenzial einer Verbindung zweier Konzepte. Bern

Antonovsky, A. 1997: Salutogenese. Zur Entmystifizierung der Gesundheit. Tübingen.

Augenstein: I. 2002: Die Ästhetik der Landschaft. Ein Bewertungsverfahren für die planerische Umweltvorsorge. Berlin.

Barnes, M. 1996: The Process of Emotional Restoration in Outdoor Settings. In: Wagner, C. (Hrsg.): Proceedings of the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Landscape Architects.

Berto, R. 2005: Exposure to restorative environments helps restore attentional capacity. In: Journal of Environmental Psychology 25 (3). 249-259.

Bird, W. 2007: Practical applications of green space and health. (Powerpoint pdf) Natural England. 37 S. www.sibthorp.org.uk/downloads/William%20Bird.pdf

Bird, W. 2007: Natural thinking. Investigating the links between the natural environment, biodiversity and mental health. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. 116 S.

Branowski, T.; Perry, C.L.; Parcel, G.S. 2002: How individuals, environments, and health behaviour interact. Social cognitive theory. In: Glanz, K.; Lewis, F.M.; Rimer, B.K. (Hrsg.): Health behavior and health education. Theory, research, and practise. San Francisco. 165-184.

Burke, C. 2005: Play in Focus. Children researching their own spaces and places for play. In: Children, Youth, and Environments. 15. 27-53.

Burmil, S.; Daniel, T.C.; Hetherington, J.D. 1999: Human values and perceptions of water in arid landscapes. In: Landscape and Urban Planning 44 (2/3). 99-109.

Caxkowski, J.M.; Nasar, J.L. 2003: The restorative effects of roadside vegetation – Implications for automobile driver anger and frustration. In: Environment and Behavior 35 (6). 736-751.

Dalgard, O.S.; Tambs, K. 1997: Urban environment and mental health. A longitudinal study. In: British Journal of Psychiatry 171. 530-536.

Einzmann, S. 2008: Der Wald ruft. Psychologie heute 10/08. 36-39.

Elings, M. 2006: People-Plant Interaction. The physiological, psychological and sociological effects of plants on people. In: Hassink, J.; van Dijk, M. (Hrsg.): Farming for Health. 43-55.

Evans, G.W. 2003: Environmetal stress and health. In: Baum, A.; Revenson, T.; Singer, J.E. (Hrsg.): Handbook of health psychology. Mahwah, New Jersey. 365-385.

Evans, G.W. 2003: The built environment and mental health. In: Journal of Urban Health. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 80 (4). 536-555.

Godbey, G.; Roy, M.; Payne, L.L.; Orsega-Smith, E. 1998: Final report on the health and park use study. The National Recreation and Park Association.

Grahn, P.; Stigsdotter, U. 2003: Landscape Planning and Stress. In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2 (1). 1-18.

Hartig, T.; Book, A.; Garvill, J.; Olsson, T.; Garling, T. 1996: Environmental influences on psychological restoration. In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 37 (4). 378-393.

Hartig, T.; Evans, G. W.; Jamner, L.D.; Davis, D.S.; Garling, T. 2003: Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings. In: Journal of Environmental Psychology 23 (2). 109-123.

Hartig, T.; Mang, M.; Evans, G.W. 1991: Restorative Effects of Natural Environment Experiences. In: Environment and Behavior 23. 359-382.

Hartig, T.; Staats, H. 2003: Restorative environments. In: Journal of Environmental Psychology 23 (2). 103-107.

Herzog, T.R.; Barnes, G.T. 1999: Tranquility and preference revisited. In: Journal of Environmental Psychology 12 (2). 171-181.

Herzog, T.R.; Black, A.M.; Fountaine, K.A.; Knotts, D.J. 1997: Reflection and attentional recovery distinctive benefits of restorative environments. In: Journal of Environmental Psychology 17 (2). 165-170.

Herzog, T.R.; Maguire, C.P; Nebel, M.B.; 2003: Assessing the restorative components of environments. In: Journal of Environmental Psychology 23 (2). 159-170.

Hull, R.B.; Michael, S.E. 1995: Nature based recreation, mood change, and stress restoration. In: Leisure Sciences 17. 1-14.

Kaplan R.; Kaplan, S. 1982: Cognition and environment: Functioning in an uncertain world.

New York.

Kaplan R.; Kaplan, S. 1989: The experience of nature: a psychological perspective. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Kaplan, R. 1973: Some psychological benefits of gardening. In: Environment and Behavior 5 (2). 145-162.

Kaplan, R. 1993: The role of nature in the context of the workplace. In: Landscape and Urban Planning 26 (1/4). 193-201.

Kaplan, R. 2001: The nature of the view from home – psychological benefits. In: Environment and Behavior 33 (4). 507-542.

Kaplan, R.; Austin, M.E. 2004: Out in the country: sprawl and the quest for nature nearby.

In: Landscape and Urban Planning 69 (2/3). 235-243.

Kaplan, S. 1995: The restorative benefits of nature: Towards an integrative framework. In: Journal of Environmental Psychology 15. 169-182.

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palli-natura Bilder 2016

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Fotopapier Alu-Dibond
cm cm m2 Brutto in € Brutto in €
30 45 0,14 103,00 232,00
35 52,5 0,18 130,00  /
40 60 0,24 183,00  /
45 67,5 0,30 232,00  /
50 75 0,38 259,00 388,00
55 82,5 0,45 297,00  /
57 85,5 0,49 337,00 443,00
60 90 0,54 347,00 481,00
65 97,5 0,63 407,00 536,00
70 105 0,74 473,00 602,00
75 112,5 0,84 522,00 651,00
80 120 0,96 571,00 700,00
85 127,5 1,08 645,00 786,00
90 135 1,22 723,00 883,00
95 142,5 1,35 806,00 984,00
100 150 1,50 848,00 1.045,00
110 165 1,82 995,00 1.235,00
120 180 2,16 1.156,00 1.440,00
130 195 2,54 1.267,00 1.600,00
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  • weitere Materialien: 300gr mattes Papier, Leinwand, Büttenpapier, Stoffe, Folien, Alu-Dibond, Acryl, Vinyltapete auf Anfrage.
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